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Posts Tagged ‘Banking’

Citi is finally getting CEO pay plans right! After losing their shareholder “say-on-pay” vote at the 2012 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, new Chairman Michael E. O’Neill, who just took over as Chairman last April, interviewed a large number of important shareholders. He was told that paying their CEO a $6 Million Incentive based on a two-year (2011 and 2012) cumulative pre-tax profit of $12 Billion, may sound like a good deal for the shareholders, but it was fraught with problems.

carrots

Incentive Pay Must Be Carefully Designed

To begin, the Company had 2010 pre-tax profit of approximately $12 Billion. So, the hurdle for earning the $6 Million was half of the actual earnings in 2010. Yes, the economy has made earnings difficult to produce, and yes, Citi is trying to overcome internal problems, but shareholders were unwilling to allow a hurdle rate that low. There were other problems with the design of the Plan.

Cumulative two-year pre-tax earnings ignores the fact that the bank could grow assets at a decreasing return on each dollar and meet the earnings hurdle while increasing their capital requirements significantly. Using volume of profit as a management performance measurement always has this inherent problem. In fact, increasing volume of profit can and often does result in lower returns on equity in banking. For that reason, shareholders can lose as management earns more, and a lose-win plan is never good.

Finally, building on the last point, there is no clear link between shareholder returns and management pay in the Plan Citi was using. A common objective of executive compensation plans is to align the interests of management with those of the shareholders. The old Citigroup, Inc. Plan did the opposite to some degree. The Board of Citigroup consists of intelligent and successful people, but they got some bad advice along the way. After Chairman O’Neill spoke with shareholders, he tasked the Board’s Compensation Committee to redesign the CEO’s Compensation Plan to address the shareholders’ concerns. He was not about to get a negative “say-on-pay” vote after his first year as Chairman.

Now, in my many years of studying and designing executive compensation plans, I have yet to see the perfect plan. It just does not exist. Business is too complex to allow for such a thing, and the need to keep the plan as simple as possible is an important constraint.  Yet, the new Citigroup, Inc. Management Compensation Plan addresses shareholder concerns with an elegantly simple design.

Executives will be granted units worth a certain amount in three years if certain performance is achieved.  Citigroup stock must perform in the top three-quarters of a carefully selected peer group of stocks of similar companies, and Citigroup’s Return on Average Assets over the three years must beat a hurdle equal to the previous year’s actual or there will be no units rewarded.  Furthermore, if the Return on Average Assets over the three years is better than the previous year by a significant percentage, then a target number of additional units will be awarded.

This design is superior to the old design because it clearly:

  1. aligns management’s interests with those of the shareholders and
  2. it is tied to relative performance compared with peers as well as the Company’s strategic goals.

There are some potential draw backs to such a plan, but the new plan is so much better than the old plan, I will not spend words on the risks in this particular blog.  Perhaps in the future, we can look at some of the potential flaws.  In the meantime, I say congratulations to Mr. O’Neill.  I may go buy some Citigroup stock!

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Last month we discussed the alarmingly similar events and reactions that occurred in the periods of 1988-1992 and 2008-2012.  Yes, strategic planning is perhaps needed more today than at any time since the 1980’s; however, the challenges are daunting, and the road ahead has gotten hazier each day.

foggy road ahead

The road has gotten hazier

The good news is that for the banks and bankers who stick it out and survive over the next five years, the future does look bright because the very pressures bankers feel today will eventually and inevitably squeeze out lower performing banks enabling a return to rational pricing.   It is going to take some time for this to occur, but the path appears set.

A wise banker said recently, “there is a long way to go, and the journey has just begun.”  Well, just how long is that journey and just what is the future?  The regulators have given us a peak into their minds.  Here is some of their thinking:

  • The core deposit franchise will need to be nurtured and managed
  • An efficient, lean operation will be critical
  • Capital management will be essential
  • Sound strategies will be critical
  • Good financial skills and in-market knowledge will be required of Boards
  • Credit and Operational risks will be equally challenging

There are a litany of challenges and issues that will need attention for the future.  But, any way you slice it, making money in a prolonged low-interest rate environment, providing a decent return to your shareholders, dealing with over reactive regulations and returning to good old-fashioned fundamentals are the underpinnings of success in the future.

Strategic planning is not a panacea, but it is critical to survival.  As we stated before, good planning establishes objectives to achieve desired future results.  Though it cannot forecast the future, strategic planning does attempt to look at future possibilities so decision makers can rationally choose between courses of action that involve risk.  Strategic managers are proactive managers.  They tackle questions of structure and focus so they are prepared long before seismic activity is sensed.

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Change?  No change is necessary.

That is what some bankers thought when their institutions began to suffer the first shocks of a quake that started rattling the financial industry in the mid-1980s.  These bankers figured that if they just hunkered down and minded their own business the tremors would subside.

Bank Strategic Planning

Bank Failures Since 1979, Source: SNL Financial and FDIC
Number of Failed Banks in 2012 is annualized based on 23 failures as of 5/1/12

Instead, many banks – and bankers – vanished.  From 1988 to 1992, the U.S. banking industry witnessed more bank failures than ever before, especially in any comparable five year period.

The reasons were complex.  Massive change hammered the industry.  New banking laws and regulations altered how financial institutions could do business and increased base-line costs.  For banks that were already on shaky financial footing, new capital requirements dictated cutbacks and/or injections of hard-to-find investment dollars.  The debut of interstate banking intensified price-cutting campaigns to win market share, and margins began to shrink.

Sound familiar?  It’s de ja vu all over again!  “Same events, different time.”  The earthquakes returned in 2008, and the financial world began to come undone once again.

For survivors of repeated quakes, reality has arrived.  If we hope to retain our jobs and help our institutions withstand external pressures, we had better prepare for life in an earthquake zone.  Strategic Planning is needed today more than any time since the 1980’s.  Through strategic efforts, banks can intelligently re-engineer their institutions to gain the resilience and strength needed to absorb shocks – and even expand – in our unstable economy.

Strategic Planning is extremely challenging in this environment, since it requires looking at the future and making assumptions.  Today, about the only given is that more massive change lies ahead.  Yet, an outline is emerging of the future that banks will face.  Over the next four or five months, we will comment on dealing with specific trends.

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Needle in a Haystack

The Community Bank CEO of the future may be hard to find

Today’s “American Banker” had an editorial called “Chief Factor in Small-Bank Survival? It’s the Chief.”  No question about it!  Leadership matters and while the banking industry has always been about people, the quality of the leadership has never been as critical.

The model for success in the future for community banks is changing radically.  Margins will be thinner on the traditional business of gathering funds and lending them out.  Costs for doing business are rising, if for no other reason than increasing regulation.  Customers are shifting banking habits requiring banks to invest more in technology-based solutions.  The challenges to success will be sizable.  So, what does the ideal candidate profile for the future community bank CEO look like?

I am sure we don’t yet have all of the answers to this major question, but many of the features can be seen in other industries that have gone through massive change.  Retail distribution went through similar change over a couple of decades leading to the development of big-box and chain retailers taking the place of the local hardware store and clothier.  Some leaders saw the change coming and innovated.  Some changed the channel of distribution.  Some narrowed the definition of their niche.  In every case, survival depended on strategic vision, detailed knowledge of their communities and customers and the leadership abilities to take their people through the wrenching change without destroying their loyalty.

The ideal community bank CEO of the future will need to have a wide array of skills and abilities.  They will need a mix of technical skills and interpersonal abilities that may be difficult to find.  Technical skills to recognize and analyze risk and understand the opportunities and the limitations of technology will be key.  In addition, the leadership traits of visionary strategists and change agents will be essential.  The CEO of the future will also need to be able to drive a sales culture and hold people accountable for results.  They will need to be a community leader and a master politician to help the local community understand why he or she demands performance and is willing to turn over staff members that may be their neighbors.

We build “Ideal Candidate Profiles” for Boards who ask us to find executives, and while every organization has its unique needs, there are certain traits that are usually needed based on the executive position.  We are exploring the changes needed for the future and the community bank CEO profile is one that will change dramatically.  Click the button below and register for a free presentation to your Board about the CEO of the future, or call 919-644-6962 and ask for Tim.

Request your Free Board Presentation

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Since September of 2008, we have been in the most challenging economic environment since the great depression. During this period, we have seen unprecedented government intervention with programs like TARP, and with the most recent passage of the Dodd-Frank Act, the regulatory burden is going to dominate the time of each management team and their board of directors. Risk Management practices have continued to improve, but it is the unforeseen risk, whether it is a double dip recession, continued declines in real estate values, deflation or a host of other things, that has to challenge the critical thinking of each bank’s leadership.

In this challenging environment, strong leadership is a must. Each CEO must be proactive and not reactive. Communication with regulators, the board of directors and the management team, as well as with all employees in the organization, is vital in order to maintain a healthy and well run financial institution. It also goes without saying that keeping shareholders informed of the strategy, vision and health of the bank is a must in order to build confidence in the marketplace. Capital is king, and investor confidence is vital especially in this economic environment and the access to new capital is paramount.

With respect to lending, there is an old saying that “you can fix bad loan underwriting but you cannot fix a bad market.” In light of the economic issues and the increased regulatory burden, Management needs to constantly monitor asset quality, ensure a diverse loan portfolio and be acutely aware of trends in the markets that the bank serves. Constant independent loan review in order to maintain a strong performing loan portfolio is now a best practice.

On the funding side, deposit composition is critical, as Jumbo CD’s and Brokered Deposits are not considered as part of a strong core deposit base. The true value of a bank is based on its loyal core deposit base. At the same time, management must make the tough calls and close branches where the economic risks are too great in a market that has been challenged by this prolonged economic downturn.

The banking business is still a people-driven business. Long-term, the key to success is having strong leadership that continually adds talented people to the organization.

To close, I’ll leave you with the idea that tough times do not last but tough-minded people and organizations do!

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We recently surveyed a group of financial institution clients about the status of their digital marketing programs.  Twenty one community financial institutions were emailed invitations to participate in this survey during May and early June.  Nineteen participated and fifteen of those who completed the survey identified themselves as the person responsible for overall retail marketing in their organization.  50% of the respondents are financial institutions with assets of $500 Million to $999 Million.  Most are community commercial banks.

This Chart summarizes their use of various digital marketing tools:

The scores shown above are combined weighted average scores for “plan to use” and “currently use.”  If every respondent was currently using a tool, the score would be “2.”

While almost everybody has a website, significantly smaller numbers of these financial institutions are using digital media and social websites to direct traffic to the primary sites, and delivery of services through mobile devises is still rare for community institutions.  While the survey sample is not large enough to be statistically representative of the industry, the findings beg some questions.  Will smaller banks and credit unions be able to compete for the customers of the future; the folks who never come into your office and do everything on-line or via mobile technology?  How do you cross sell services in this new environment, when you never see your prospect?

We believe that there is still time to “get in the game,” but the new generation of customers/members is forming banking habits now that will be “sticky” for a long time.  It is imperative that community institutions figure out how to communicate with young customers, what they want and how to deliver those services in a safe and convenient fashion.

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